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This research is concerned about two main points: public place and state of play (leisure) as an interaction in terms of case of Brazil and China. I intend to make some visual generalizations comparing types of interactions in public space where people “play” (case study of Sao Paulo and Shanghai) with account and equalize for climate, transportation culture infrastructure and urbanization (time-lapse videos or serial of photographs). The big city needs to cultivate "micro spaces" to solve the possible problems of 'no place to play'. And at the same time to classify “interactions” and investigate their role for public place and how people “play”. As I assume the "problematic" point is the lack of play space available for free integrated interaction between various groups. I will try to investigate how unplanned mixed-use heterogeneous public space gives a rise to community interactions and hence free play, and the destruction of this kind of urban place in favour or single use/auto-centric space makes spontaneous play less likely. Keywords: public place, interactions, Shanghai, Sao Paulo, play Subtheme: Public/private space and urban life/ Leisure, play, and recreation Contact : lena.kilina@gmail.com
The question of whether there is an ethics of place is fascinating and still holds some persuasive power when applied to East Asian civilizations. At present, the persistence of nationalism and totalizing ideologies and politics in this geographic region of Asia often seem to preclude thinking of “place” and “ethics” there in any other than narrow, conservative, or predetermined ways. Yet, in a longer and deeper inquiry into the ethical and civilizational background of East Asia, it is possible to realize that this was once a region in which a more cosmopolitan sense of ethics and place existed. This paper, in positing such a more extended inquiry, has arrived at this position by examining the thought in the works of two late nineteenth and early twentieth century aspirant literati, one from Korea, Pak Ŭnsik (1859-1925), and one from Vietnam, Phan Bội Châu (1867-1940). It thereby provides a miltidimensional means not only for questioning the centrality of the nation as the sole place or narrative focus of the history of this era, but also for grasping the dimensions of an ethics derived from a previously existing cosmopolitan sphere — the Chinese learning ecumene. I suggest, based on the sense of place and ethics conveyed in Pak and Phan's works, that the meaning of place particularly in East Asia, or perhaps anywhere, should include a sense of uncertain locatedness in the world. Keywords : Korea Vietnam East Asia Southeast Asia history ethics place cosmopolitanism Contact : Will Pore (willpore@gmail.com)
The materialistic dimension of Japanese language is characterised by the use of three different scripts– phonetic scripts of hiragana and katakana, and kanji. Because of the use of these different scripts, it distinguishes words by their origins. For example, words of foreign origin are conventionally written using katakana. But against this conventional use, Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been transliterated into katakana when associated with the atomic bombs. And since the nuclear accident in 2011, the word Fukushima has been also transliterated into katakana. What does this transliteration mean? Does it only imply the international recognition of these place names? There should be much more to this transliteration. This study will examine the transliteration of the word Fukushima used particularly in the newspaper media after the nuclear accident and suggest a psychoanalytical understanding to it. Jacques Lacan was once interested in the materialistic dimension of Japanese language – how the foreign origin of a word is reserved and cohabits with the Japanese native-ness when written using katakana or kanji but read by using the Japanese native sounds. Psychoanalytically speaking, the unconscious and parole never touch each other because the former is always repressed. But Lacan understood that the unconscious (the foreignness of katakana and kanji) was always exposed in the Japanese consciousness (parole) - there was no repression. Seen in this light, we can presume that transliterated words are not essentially internalised in their identity. For example, when written by using katakana, Fukushima seems to only represent the nuclear accident, radiation, contamination and the like – it no longer represents the geographical and cultural features of the place. Perhaps, Lacan would have said that through this transliteration, they lie about Fukushima without being a liar. It will be worth examining what Lacan could tell us about the transliteration of Fukushima. Fukushima ; nuclear disasters ; katakana ; Jacques Lacan ; psychoanalysis Contact : Yohei Koyama (606249@soas.ac.uk)
In recent days, young South Koreans call their country ‘Hell Joseon'. As Joseon references the feudal Joseon era, they think Korea is rather a hierarchical society in which only a few people have almost all of the wealth and this economic inequality can't be fixed. Therefore, as the title of the bestseller novel Cause I Don't Like Korea shows, they look for way out from Korea. On the internet there are many how-tos and some success stories of ‘escape from Joseon' and surveys show that growing number of people want to leave Korea since April 16, 2014 when the sinking Sewol ferry revealed Koreans were living in a precarity not only in terms of economic condition but also of public system in general. On the contrary, in Japan which also wrestling with poverty and income inequality especially across generations, there are no such tendencies. After 3.11 Earthquake, there seems to be increasing local patriotism in Japan and young Japanese are said to have ‘jimotoshikou‘ meaning they don't want to leave their hometown. As the bestseller book The Happy youth of a Desperate Country shows, they rather try to be and are satisfied with what they have although they live in a precarity because they think there is no possibility to escape from current situation. This paper will discuss how differently Japanese and Korean express their precarious life and imagine the way to overcome it comparing some important discourses and show that both of them can end up in new jingoism. Contact : Jeongmyoung Sim (yorito@gmail.com)
Vietnam is a mark in the memory of France about colonies at the end of the XIXe century and the beginning of the XXe century. Vietnam-France history in that colonial era has been greatly concerned by researchers at the macro issues. This research selects the status of ordinary Vietnamese as a starting point to observe events in the French colonial era. That was expressed through documents archived in Vietnam and France, especially, in the Overseas Archive of France (ANOM), specifically in petitions and denunciations..., personal letters... The archival documents written in Sino-Nôm during the period when Vietnam was under French colonization are the collection of documents that perhaps Vietnamese experts studying in the homeland and abroad have not explored. Those are the documents written in hieroglyphics originated from ancient Chinese civilization, which were used and somewhat localized by the Vietnamese through thousands of years. By the second half of the nineteenth century when the French gradually imposed multifaceted intervention on the territory of Vietnam, Sino-Nôm documents in Overseas Archive in France are evidence reflecting the status and lives of the Vietnamese people under social changes of the time. Furthermore, these were the documents that the French selected and brought home from Indochina, the entire records kept in the era of colonialism in Indochina. This meant that these Sino-Nôm documents contained issues about Vietnam that the French particularly concerned. The author found that the identities of the ordinary Vietnamese people, although little, the people are a fundamental and important factor to determine the appearance and quality of society. Key words: Archive documents; Sino-Nôm documents, Vietnam under French domination; Voice of the Viet Nam People. E-mail: hannom.vn@gmail.com
Indentured migrant labour was a system of labour circulation across the colonies during the colonial period. The use of the colonial population as a cheap labour for the development of the infrastructure, industrial and plantation work in undeveloped colonies was the purpose of this policy. In colonial India indentured migrant labourers were recruited by the French as well as British government. It provided immense opportunity to the lower castes people in the colonial India to escape from the acute poverty but paying the high price of leaving their roots where they had been living for centuries. In the same period the convict workers were being used to fulfil the need of workers in the infrastructure development of the newly colonised territories. At the end of the 19th century colonial India saw enactment of another law, namely Criminal Tribe Act 1871 ( CTA 1871), which gave immense power to authority to brand any person as a criminal and keep him or her under strict surveillance. Interestingly the CTA 1871 had the provision to keep such criminal population in a settlement and train them as industrial and agricultural workers, which had seen as a decriminalising process by British government. This paper will attempt to study and explore the linkages between the indentured migrant labour, convict labours and criminal tribe act 1871. This paper will also attempt to study how these three policies were used to fulfil the needs of labours for industries as well as for development of colonies. Though all three policies look different but serve similar purpose. This paper will also study how the convict labours were used for the development of various British colonies. This paper will also bring forth how the Criminal Tribe Act 1871 though aimed at to reform the group of people in colonial India who were indulged in crime, but ended up in creating stigmatised identity of these groups. Author : Shirish Athawale, Ph.D. Student at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai,India. Email: itsmeshirish@gmail.com
Sacred texts are central to many ritual performances in Vietnam but have mainly been studied from the vantage point of linguistic content - message (philology). In the context of the recent intensification of ritual practice in contemporary Vietnam, an examination of sacred texts through an anthropological lens can reveal how texts—and the scripts in which they are written—generate meaning in practice. The use of text in ritual performance in Vietnam results in a specific digraphic situation that evokes the complex history of written language in Vietnam and its impact on social life, especially religious belief. Based on data collected in a village in Nam Dinh Province over the last five years from work with two shamans, one using the national phonetic script Quốc ngữ and the other Hán characters, this paper explores digraphic practices and in particular, the choice to use a given script, as performances of particular notions of the sacred in contemporary popular religious belief. When examined from the angle of ritual performance, our analysis of digraphic practices in popular Buddhist and Taoist ritual reveals that each script has a specific relationship with the sacred that is rooted in different gendered ideas about personhood and community. Key words: Script, quốc ngữ, hán-nôm, writing performance, ritual, Vietnam. Main contact: Phan Phuong Anh, Department of Anthropology (paphan.anth@gmail.com)
L'enseignement de l'histoire, associé à celui de la géographie et de l'éducation civique, est considéré comme essentiel dans la construction et la transmission de valeurs et d'imaginaire communs, socle d'une présumée « identité nationale ». Dans un pays autoritaire comme la République populaire de Chine, il est essentiel que le curriculum produit au sein des instances politiques et éducatives nationales soit bien transmis au niveau local de l'école. Pourtant, même au sein de cet État autoritaire, la transmission est moins assurée qu'on ne pourrait s'y attendre (A. Jones, 2007). L'objet de notre propos sera de montrer quels sont les cadres normatifs, pédagogiques et matériels qui permettent à l'État chinois d'assurer au mieux la transmission du curriculum prescrit jusque dans les classes. A partir d'une recherche sur le terrain et de nombreux entretiens, nous montrerons que l'espace de liberté accordé aux professeurs laisse peu de marge à l'interprétation des contenus des programmes d'histoire, mais promeut au contraire l'innovation dans la manière de transmettre ces contenus. On s'attardera sur un objet très peu étudié que sont les contenus des examens de fin de collège (zhongkao, 中考). Les examens permettent d'actualiser les programmes d'histoire en les inscrivant dans un présent politique : les références au « rêve chinois » et à « la renaissance du peuple chinois » parsèment les questions posées aux élèves, et permettent d'actualiser année après année l'interprétation des évènements historiques, au contraire des manuels scolaires, renouvelés moins fréquemment. Dans un pays où la place de l'examen est centrale, cela permet de canaliser l'enseignement en classe plus sûrement que par toute autre forme de contrôle oppressif. Mots clés : Chine, Enseignement, Histoire, Examens, Identité nationale Contact : Yves Russell (yvesrussell@gmail.com)
La troisième session plénière du 18e Comité Central du Parti communiste chinois s'est tenu du 9 au 12 novembre 2013, à l'issu de laquelle a vu jour la politique du « strict contrôle de la croissance de la population dans les mégapoles » (yankong teda chengshi renkou guimo). Cette politique a été relayée par les autorités de Pékin, qui ont déclaré en 2014 l'objectif de limiter sa population à 23 millions d'habitants d'ici 2020, tout en avançant le discours imputant les « maladies urbaines » (les embouteillages, la pénurie d'eau, la pollution et la crise du logement, etc.) à la surpopulation. Trois méthodes sont mises en œuvre afin de contrôler l'augmentation rapide de la population : d'abord le contrôle par l'emploi (yiye kongren) qui consiste à délocaliser les industries « bas de gamme » en dehors de Pékin, et par ce biais, à pousser les travailleurs dans ces industries - dont la plupart sont des travailleurs migrants ruraux - à quitter la capitale. C'est ainsi qu'en 2014, le gouvernement du district de Xicheng a décidé de déplacer le marché de gros de Zoo de Pékin, un marché de l'habillement d'une superficie de plus de 300000 m2 qui comprend 13000 stands et plus de 30000 personnes. Deuxièmement, le contrôle par le logement (yifang guanren), visant à examiner de manière consistante l'identité de locataires en colocation, notamment ceux à faible revenu et qui habitent en sous-sol, aussi nombreux qu'invisibles. Enfin, il s'agit du contrôle par la scolarisation (yijiao kongren), qui se traduit dans le durcissement de la politique scolaire vis-à-vis des familles migratoires non-détentrices du hukou de Pékin et la campagne de répression à l'encontre des écoles privées sans licence d'établissement qui accueillent des enfants de travailleurs migrants ruraux. C'est dans ce contexte que nous proposons une étude portant sur la politique scolaire à l'égard des enfants de travailleurs migrants ruraux, du point de vue de sa mise en œuvre concrète par les agents des gouvernements locaux du district, les travailleurs migrants ruraux et les directeurs des écoles privées destinées aux enfants de travailleurs migrants ruraux. Basée sur une enquête exploratoire en octobre 2016 à Pékin dans dix écoles privées (reconnues ou non par l'Etat) situées dans six districts (Haidian, Chaoyang, Changping, Shijingshan, Daxing, Shunyi), cette étude met en lumière la diversification des interprétations de la politique scolaire par les gouvernements locaux au niveau du district, en fonction du nombre de leur population et leur localisation géographique centre/périphérie, conduisant à des formes de tolérance ou d'hostilité vis-à-vis de ces écoles. Les familles migrantes oscillent entre le retour au lieu d'origine (laojia) ou à persister à vivre à Pékin. On constate également la multiplication des pensionnats privés au Hebei (notamment à Yanjiao et à Gu'an, proches des banlieues pékinoises), accueillant des enfants de travailleurs migrants ruraux. La politique du « strict contrôle de la croissance de la population » affecte de manière différente le recrutement des écoles situées dans différents districts. Face à la diminution du nombre d'élèves et à la répression du gouvernement, certaines directions d'écoles mobilisent des ressources (médias, ONGs) pour y résister ou négocier. D'autres adoptent une attitude de repli et préfèrent garder un profil bas devant un gouvernement qui tolère leur existence. Mots-clés : travailleurs migrants ruraux, ségrégation scolaire, urbanisation, Chine, enquête ethnographique Contact: Charline.zhou@gmail.com
War on terrorism, inaugurated in the backdrop of 9/11, remains unresolved. Afghanistan is not stable, nor is Pakistan, in the post-election scenario. The steady deterioration of law and order in Afghanistan harks back the old question: whether terrorism is dead or resurgent? Is Afghanistan likely to collapse into Taliban clutch? One of the grave challenges to long-term stability is the presence of Jihadi elements and sanctuaries, along the southern borders with Pakistan. The displacement of three to four million Afghan refugees raises a fundamental issue of security and stability, along Afghanistan borders. Given the limited capacity of Afghan government to absorb destitute, landless Afghan which continued from 1980, the greatest challenge in the region-is offering of human security to the float some elements. Majority of the estimated one million registered Afghan refugees in Iran live in urban areas. Only a limited number chose to repatriate to Afghanistan due to her limited absorption capacity, lack of basic opportunities and social services. The crisis in Post-Taliban Afghanistan is manifold: security, governance, border management and countering Taliban and other insurgents, which feed on drugs and narcotics. With a weak and fragile state structure, albeit democratically elected, Afghanistan is floundering into corruption, poor accountability, violation of human rights and trade in illegal narcotics. The paper would examine the strategies against terrorism, both at regional and global levels, and analyze the broader issues of human security and development. Contact: akdatta112@gmail.com
Conflict, violence and terrorism have splurged Asian politics for long span. With gradual marketization and globalization of economy, Insurgent and terrorist groups and their cohorts have not only subverted the state structures and the process of democratization; they promoted drug-trafficking, money-laundering and cross border insurgencies in the fabric of South and South East Asia. Whether it is in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, Vietnam or Afghanistan and Pakistan, the proliferation of multiple insurgent activities have destroyed the economic structures and subjected the political stability to extreme strains. The Al-Quaidaization of South and South East Asia whether by Islamic groups or local insurgents is the root cause of instability and violence in Asian politics. Military or state imposed solutions to non-state violence cannot go a long way, unless it is mixed with more consensual and sensitive responses to socially- embedded complex hierarchy, which is prevalent in the existing state system and social relations. The paper would argue that conflict and violence are product of both intra- societal and inter- societal pulls and pressure. Globalization and marketization have laid bare the whole issue of arms trade and insurgent groups have consolidated their stranglehold all over Asia-Pacific Contact : akdatta112@gmail.com
This paper discusses the ideologically radical TVs in Indonesia. TVs with this characteristic are generally performed with the face of Islam. Nevertheless, the interests of strengthening their ideology seem to have influenced their programs. At least in Indonesia there are three prominent radical TVs, namely Rodja TV, TV Insan, and Yufid TV. All three are Muslim media whose ideology is Salafi—going back to the traditions of the early Muslims followers-- which seeks to build the power of the group through the display of da'wa (Islamic communication). Hence the question arises how these three TV stations with their radical ideology based on salafi build power in Indonesia? In other words, what principles of their social ideals? To what extent the relationship between their salafi ideals distributed socially? What kind of programs they have in order to build resistance to the ideology of others? This paper uses the theory of ideology and power (Branston and Stafford, 2003: 117) who believe an ideology plays a key role in building power. There are three elements of ideology, namely: 1) socially oriented ideal, 2) the relationship between the ideals distributed socially, 3) the natural and understandable appearance of the idea as a form of contestation. The object of the study is first Rodja TV, which pioneered in the early 2005 in the form of a community FM radio. It is an Islamic TV based on Salafi that focuses on Islamic studies. Studies include faith, religious, social, economic, and others. Second, Insan TV established in 2011 under Insan Media Propagation foundation which engaged in da'wa (Islamic communication) and social aspect. ThisTV broadcasts Islamic programs via satellite television and streaming analogy. Third, Yufid TV which is part of the Yufid Network. It is active in presenting videos of Islamic education, Islamic studies, short stories, and Islamic advices. Research shows that the three TVs are carrying the idea of textual and orientation of the past in bringing about social religious missions. Second, the idea built in TV was linked to the strength of a growing of Salafi congregation in social life as a support base. Third, the programs basically build a salafi ideology. For example, Rodja TV shows its TV identity by being anti-Wahabi radical, anti-radicalism and terrorism, and delivers social assistance to victims of disaster. Likewise Insan TV, such as programs of Friendly Islamic Youth with rigid salafi viewpoint. They qualify long trousers, beard and veil as the characteristics of Islamic values. While in Yufid TV, for example, there are programs such as Three Minutes Must Embrace Islam, Know Salaf, Earth Flat or Round, and others. These programs are built with textual perspectives, so that leads people to reject anything outside Islam from the West. Yet at the same time they are actually using the media as a product of modernity. Thus, this paper proves that TVs with the ideology of radical salafi appear as if in the face of pure Islam. They followed the life of al-Salaf al-Salih (early followers of Islam). But their existence is loaded with ideological interests in an effort to confirm their existence in the religious arena in Indonesia. Keywords: Radical, TV, community, salafi, and ideology. Contact : Andi Faisal Bakti (amfabak@gmail.com)
Nguyễn Mạnh Tường, French-educated and among one of the first waves of students in France, is generally known for his participation in the Nhan Van Giai Pham affair and his defense of the freedom of creative expression. This freedom, traced as early as his first creative text in 1937, Sourires et larmes d'une jeunesse, is constant and recurring; we see his conviction of an “internal freedom” that spans the 50 years of his career, up to his last published work, Un excommunié (1992), where he is recounts his exile and abandonment within his own country. This study speculates the different aspects of this freedom as intimated in his first and last texts, from its ‘serendipitous' overlapping with the Nietschean free spirit to its loyalty to Montaigne's rejection of a systemic philosophy. In this sense, it offers an alternative understanding of Vietnamese youth in France during the early 20th century. Rather than traveling to France to learn and participate in anticolonial activity like his peers, Nguyễn Mạnh Tường makes up a class of Vietnamese intellectuals who was well aware of the colonial situation but not weighed down by its binaries, and looked toward the worthwhile extension of political and social boundaries. Contact: Yen Vu (ynv2@cornell.edu)
Pays au vieillissement démographique particulièrement avancé, le Japon a de longue date préparé la transition démographique à laquelle doivent faire face la plupart des pays développés. Prenant le contre-pied d'une culture de la préretraite, le Japon a mis en place une politique active de promotion de l'emploi des seniors. Le taux d'emploi de 85,9% des travailleurs masculins de 55-59 ans et de 72,9% des 60-64 ans (Cabinet Office, 2016) en est la conséquence la plus visible. Cette contribution propose d'analyser l'évolution des mesures publiques de promotion de l'emploi des seniors développées depuis les années 1960, en portant une attention particulière aux dispositifs de lutte contre la discrimination liée à l'âge. Dans un second temps, nous étudierons les pratiques de gestion des seniors développées par les entreprises, notamment après les années 1990, en mettant l'accent sur l'importance accordée au critère d'âge dans la gestion des salariés au Japon. Enfin, nous verrons en quoi les discriminations dont sont victimes les « kōrei furītā » (travailleurs seniors évoluant sur le marché du travail précaire) soulignent les limites des dispositifs pour l'emploi des seniors et apparaissent comme un obstacle à l'élaboration de la « Société d'actifs à vie » (shōgai geneki shakai、 生涯現役社会) souhaitée par le gouvernement japonais. Contact : Julien MARTINE (julien.martine@univ-paris-diderot.fr)
La réception transnationale de la musique pop sud-coréenne (« K-pop ») dépende beaucoup des médias sociaux et de leurs usagers, surtout des fans pouvant produire activement des contenus, et favorisant la distribution, promotion et valorisation de la K-pop. Avec la montée en puissance progressive des K-pop fan-youtubeurs francophones produisant des vidéos de réaction, cover dance/song, challange et de JT humoristique, certains d'entre eux tels que Hongik Station sont devenus des médias à part entière et jouent le rôle des « intermédiaires culturels » entre K-pop et son public. Cette présentation, en reposant sur une enquête semi-directif des Hongik Station, de fans de K-pop et d'acteurs de l'industrie en 2016, et sur une analyse de leurs vidéos, tente d'explorer les vidéastes français se livrant à des activités de création, d'édition et de diffusion de vidéos pour d'autres fans faute de sources d'information francophone, et leurs relations avec d'autres acteurs de l'industrie K-pop. Mots Clés : K-pop, fan, Youtubeur, intermédiaires culturels, Digital labor, culture participative, vidéastes La première apparition du mot « Real-Variety Show » dans les émissions sud-coréennes remonte à l'année 2006, à la sortie de l'émission « Infinite Challenge » (« 무한도전») diffusée sur la chaîne MBC, qui est toujours considérée comme l'origine de « Real-Variety Show » sud-coréen et le modèle des émissions de divertissement sud-coréen d'aujourd'hui. Bien que ce nouveau modèle d'émission partage quelques caractéristiques des émissions de télé-réalité occidentale comme le non-scénarisé et la mise en situation des jeux et des défis, il porte un caractère identique lié fortement à la vague sud-coréenne. Inventée par les médias chinois vers la fin des années 1990, la vague sud-coréenne a vu son influence sur la télévision chinoise principalement avec les séries télévisées mais maintenant avec ce modèle de Real-Variety Show. Par contre, en sortant de la tradition de diffuser les émissions coréennes à la télévision chinoise, la Chine a commencé à produire les émissions d'adaptations de Real-Variety coréen dans un contexte chinois. La comparaison basée sur une analyse télévisuelle entre l'émission de real-variety show coréen « 아빠 !어디가 ? » (Papa, on va où ?) et son adaptation chinoise « 爸爸去哪儿? » se discuterait dans cette présentation. Contact : Woojin NA (skdnwls@hotmail.com)
Cf. French version
Commonly denoting the complex interplay of different cultures in hope of attaining constructive integration, Transculturalism, for a social scientist, is a social phenomenon that extends through the paradigms of culture and it's varied interpretations across disciplines, and thus, can be a potential solution to problems that arise relating to one's identity. With the advent of everyday disappearing borders, movement of people for varied reasons has become easier and more frequent. With the paucity of relevant information, it is difficult to gauge into the magnitude of problems that arise relating to migration and the following assimilation process. The entailing research paper makes a conscious effort to sediment the understanding of transculturalism in the social practices and talk of it as a potential panacea to some of the crucial problems like immigrant integration and minority rights. It investigates the plurality of India, and studies the patterns of immigration and the issues faced both by the host country and the arriving communities. The research scrutinizes the aforementioned nation in because India is ethnically very diverse, and yet lacks the political will to include immigrants and minorities for better integration. Encompassing the broad themes of transnational and transcultural exchanges, the paper proves to be pertinent to the theme of the Conference. Contact: purnima.kajal@kcl.ac.uk
This is a study of the Nguyen palace manuscripts and their performance in shaping the dynasty's bureaucratic operation. It argues that chauban硃本 (Vermilion records) and other bureaucratic documents play a crucial part in the Minh Menh's political project in defining early nineteenth century Vietnam's political identity. Not only are they recognized as a medium of communication, but more significantly, a political institution and symbol of authority. Their dramatic evolution between 1802 and 1841 lays the foundation for emerging new political landscape where manuscripts involves as part of the state-building, especially their association with political institutionalization and standardization. Such Institutional transformation is deeply imprinted in the formalization and standardization of the bureaucratic manuscripts, including their structural organization, paratexts, sealed marks, iconographic decoration, layouts, and emperor's vermilion notations. These designed structures and arranged textual organization create a distinctive visual representation under which state's textualization and manuscript's performance is closely connected, and signify a prominent character of the Nguyen bureaucracy. Keywords: Vietnam; Nguyen dynasty; political history; manuscript culture; dynastic historiography Contact: liemvuvn@gmail.com
The kangany system in colonial South and South East Asia oversaw Indian migrant labor in India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia from the nineteenth century onwards. Kanganies played a vital role in the push and pull factors which contributed to Tamil migration to British Malaya via Tamil Nadu, India and Sri Lanka. Previous research revisions European intervention and the British colonial framework as responsible for Tamil migration to Southeast Asia during the late nineteenth century onwards (Sandhu 1969, Miles 1982). Recent research from Heidemann 1992 has put question marks behind this reigning thesis. My research chooses this approach and asks, “How were kanganies the vital lifeline between the colonizer and the colonized? Kanganies, as the middle men, fostered their own agency to bring Tamil labourers to Malaya by navigating the colonial system to impact colonial categorizations put onto Indian and Sri Lankan migrants to Malaysia. Government Orders and Files of the Colonial Office from the India Office London are rich primary source materials to review the kangany system. Through a comparison of this system, I can revisit notions of migration, diaspora, and the imagined community of the South Asian population in Malaysia. How did kanganies utilize their own agency to rise in social status (shudra caste and adi dravida caste networks) among their peers? How did sub-ethnicity (Indian Tamil, Sri Lankan Tamil, Malayalee) function as a new caste identity formation? Through a critical re-evaluation of this system, this paper will explore how South Asian communities navigated the colonial system to change the course of their lives, leading to the development of new diasporic experience within the Indian Ocean realm. I will reevaluate the aforementioned source material through a bottom-up examination of kangany navigational patterns within the colonial system. This will provide a new point of analysis. Thus, we can come to understand the dynamic dualism between the colonial system and agency. This fostered the imagined community during the kangany era of the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Contact: Kristina Hodelin-ter Wal - k.hodelinterwal@let.ru.nl
This paper looks at the textual negotiation of Bengali visitors and migrants with/in Japan during last century to interrogate the cultural migration of Bengalis in/to Japan. It investigates the ways and means of cultural translation in between Bengal/Bangladesh and Japan through textualization of/by such ‘cultural' migrants. Bengalis have textualized Japan for more than a century. Reputed Bengalis like Rabindranath Tagore, Rashbehari Bose, and Horiprobha Basu Mallick, traveled to Japan in early twentieth century and wrote narratives on Japanese society. Contemporary authors and filmmakers have also composed texts linking Japan with Bangladesh (e.g. A Ahmed, 2015; Z Hossain, 1995; T Mokammel, 2012). Through analysing the literary and film texts as well as the ‘subjects' of these films and books, the paper explores the Bengalis' way of cultural translation which are connected to the process of cultural migration. I ask how such processes interact in a site like Japan throughout the twentieth century and beyond. I apply ‘Trans-Asia' as method of understanding —a method that has been instrumental in Asian cultural studies during last decade or so. I thus investigate how the individual memory of such migrants contributes to the social memory of the two national/regional communities of Asia during last century. Contact: zhraju@gmail.com - Zakir Hossain Raju (Independent University, Bangladesh)
The feminization of international migration in France is confirmed by its national statistics : in 2012, France received 2 864 237 females immigrants while 2 736 019 men arrived, another report shows that only 48,8 % of immigrants were males. For the same period, the strong growth of Chinese immigrant women mainly contributes to the fact that 59% of immigrants from Asia are women, while 51% of European immigrants are women (INSEE). How can we then explain this new demographic situation where a growing number of Chinese women immigrate alone to France? In this presentation, we will first discuss a few conceptual problems posed by the gender of immigration. We will revisit the cycle of “organization-disorganization-reorganization” first proposed by the Chicago School, and we will compare the term Chinese diaspora and transnationalism theories, each trying in their own way to explain the links between the host and departure country for the Chinese migrants as a response to globalization. We will then address the articulation of class, race and gender with the theory of intersectionality regarding the study of immigration, Chinese in particular. Secondly, using the fieldwork I have conducted since 2014 with a group of undocumented Chinese immigrant strikers in Paris, we will study the impact of gender and work on migration trajectories and on the socio-professional insertions of Chinese women in France. Key words: gender; migration; work; Chinese women; intersectionality Contact: xiaoyi0420@gmail.com
Before Murata Minoru and Mori Iwao's adaptation project ‘Tsubakihime' caused a public scandal in Japan in 1927, its source novel, Dumas, fils' ‘La Dame aux Camélias,' had already formed the basis of a stage play, Verdi's opera ‘La Traviata' as well as various international film adaptations as ‘Camille'. The novel and play had been translated into Japanese in the early 1900s along with the release of recordings of the opera, and some filmic renditions had been shown in Japan in the 1910s and 1920s. For this paper I analyse extant resources of this lost film such as the script, publicity images, the radio play and the music scored for performance in the cinemas at the time. Following Hutcheon's (2006/2013) contextual approach to the process of adaptations, I thereby shed light on the intermedial practices of the Japanese film industry in the silent period and how the different media involved utilised the cultural capital of preceding adaptations familiar to Japanese audiences to promote and ‘localise' the narrative – until the star power of the lead actress performing the role of Marguerite brought the production to a halt. Contact: k_fooken@soas.ac.uk
My dissertation is about an upland community that lives in a National Park in Northern Thailand. I highlight the ways the Lahu respond to the Thai state's ecological management program through developing new practices in the context of environmental constraints, and imbuing them with meanings that speak to both traditional and state centered ideas about the environment. Conservation stories in Muser hills indicate that, in protected areas, conflicts over environmental discourses cannot be reduced to a simple standoff between two opposing sides - the state and local tradition - but rather can be seen as a process of compromise, combination and negotiation among many discourses. These marginalized people also pursue and capitalize on social and economic opportunities to generate sympathies and alliances, and pursue novel forms of commerce as their conservation efforts are closely associated with their sustained participation in trading activities at their market space. My work, thus, explores how the Lahu exert a powerful sense of agency for themselves in the face of rigid national environmental policies that are often not in their favor. By identifying and analyzing their complex responses to these policies, I argue that environmental discourse of the state has been the catalyst for the emergence of a new way of being Lahu. By asserting their position as rightful residents in the forest - through the generation, adaptation and mobilization of environmental knowledge - they appropriate and transform nationally-defined ‘protected forest zones' into sites of ethnic and cultural production. Looking closely at local responses to various state policies, I find that the Lahu's self-empowerment rests in new discursive regime of ecological knowledge. Key Words: Local Knowledge, Environmental Politics, Protected Areas, Conservation, Livelihood, Identity , Thailand Contact: Dung NGUYEN QUANG apolloglory@gmail.com
Debates over China's foreign policies tend to be conceived more or less along two alternatives, namely either China is seen as a reliable partner of international community or a revolutionary power that poses a threat to established international order. This in case of the islands around its coast - from islands in the South-China Sea to the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands located between China and Japan - means that China is interpreted to be cooperative if it does not question the status of these islands, but interpreted to pose a threat for its neighbors if it exercises sovereign authority over them. The contention of this paper is that the tendency to interpret China's acts according to such a binary scheme is misleading as it conceals the wider repertoire of strategic options that China may be taking and thereby provides an impoverished understanding of China's diplomatic/strategic reality and the stakes in the political ‘games' of East Asia. In order to make our point we use previous examples from China's foreign relations offering analogies that highlight alternative objectives China may be pursuing. Finally, in addition to these, we offer additional historical examples of states dealing with their conflicts over islands in order to highlight that there are further conceivable ways of managing conflicts over Islands. Contact: akoskopper@gmail.com
Concerning the French Trading posts in India (‘Comptoirs de l'Inde'), only the glorious periods of Dupleix (1742-1754) and of Suffren (1782-1783) have been well studied in the French historiography and possibly well known, as well as the successive French Companies of East Indies (‘Compagnies des Indes Orientales'). But, for the periods 1765-1778 (Old Regime 1, during Law de Lauriston and Bellecombe time) and 1785-1790 (Old Regime 2), very few studies do exist, but with disparity and gaps. During that time, the British are winners at Plassey (1757) and Buxar (1764). And the taxes collected in the conquered provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Aoudh allow them to add to their powerful marine a great number of regiments of sepoys recruited locally and to extend progressively their territory in South India too. This situation leads to despair the nabab Tippu Sultan who, in spite of his first victories and fierce resistance, is finally vanquished and killed in 1799, because he is left alone by the French, tied first by the treaties of 1783 and 1786 and later entangled in the Revolutionary movements. Following the Treaty of Versailles, the ‘Comptoirs' are handed over to the French on February 1st 1785 with a delay caused by the question of the fate of Trincomalee (Ceylon). For the period 1785-1790, our study tries to fill up few of the gaps. It shows the actions of the successive French Authorities, after the tranfer of the General Govenorship to Port-Louis in ‘Ile de France' and the various problems met until the arrival to Pondicherry of the news of the French Revolution (14th July 1789) on February 22nd 1790. Contact: Gobalakichenane Gobal - ggobal@yahoo.com
This presentation will analyze how some selected Middle Eastern political leaders from Egypt, Iran and Saudi Arabia perceived and reacted to China's growing influence in their region from 1992 to 2015. Three geostrategical evolutions justify the choice of this specific time-period: Firstly, it was during those years that the international community realized that Chinese growth had become a new consistent feature of global politics, and was not a passing phenomenon. Secondly, 1992 was the first year when China was holding embassies in every single Middle Eastern country. Lastly, the fall of the Communist Bloc in the early 90's left a political vacuum in those countries, one that could potentially be filled by China's growing influence. As a consequence, Middle Eastern leaders started to strengthen significantly their diplomatic and economic ties with China. On their side, Chinese leaders increased the involvement of China in the region, with the specific goals of promoting political stability and securing its strategic interests, the latter being its access to the large quantities of energy resources and to the maritime trade routes that run through the area. Contact: Roie Yellinek roie.yellinek@gmail.com
To form a panel : When talking about Vietnam modern history, people often think of a country immersed in blood and bombs in the 1960s and 1970s. The Vietnam War had escalated beginning in 1965 with the direct intervention of the American military and its allies in Southern Vietnam. It is during the most challenging period of the war that typical Saigonese Vietnam modern music flourished, and a constellation of composers and singers that made the 1960s and 1970s the golden age of southern Vietnamese music appeared. Inheriting the tradition of Vietnamese Folk Music, the treasure of reformatted music pre-1945, these talented composers enriched and embellished the musical life of the Southern Vietnamese by creating a school of Saigonese modern music diversified in styles, themes and types. Songs were written using the rhythms of the tango, the rhumba, the waltz, and the bolero rhythm on topics ranging from romantic love, paternal love, patriotic love, nostalgia, war tragedy, human destiny, and the antiwar movement. All degrees of individuality were manifest against an artistic background based on the ever-changing beauty of nature. The proliferation of these songs animated the musical life of the Saigon people, helped them to find relaxing moments of peace amidst the hardship of a country in continuous war. These songs helped people approach life more positively and made it worth living during the struggle for peace. This paper intends to present different aspects of musical life of Saigon in 1960s and 1970s. The artistic products of the mentioned period, thought to be lost and forgotten the time when Vietnam experienced difficulties after 1975, have survived and been rediscovered, leaving impressive prints of the life of the Vietnamese and have thus become a precious cultural pearl in Asian culture. Keywords: Saigon, modern music, songs, love, life, war. Contact : lyquyettien@yahoo.fr
In recent decades, cross-national marriages have become a common phenomenon throughout Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam in particular has witnessed an increasing number of its women marrying Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese men. Vietnamese women of different social status have chosen to marry a foreign husband in the hope of finding a better life. This trend is especially prevalent among women from poor families. Some are lucky and find the right man and happiness, but many are not. The unlucky are often abused, sometimes so severely they are driven to commit suicide. Worse still, their painful circumstance seldom elicits sympathy from the husband's family. To the contrary, they have stigmatized these Vietnamese brides as materialistic and mercenary, concerned only with the acquisition of their husbands' wealth. The media has also contributed to this pejorative stereotype, often portraying these women as little more than “gold diggers”. This paper will explore the following questions in an effort to better understand this phenomenon: What are the social and economic factors that compel Vietnamese women to seek a cross-national marriage? What are the factors that determine the success or failure of these marriages? What role do tradition, culture, education, and gender bias play? What can be done to assure the success cross-national marriages? By way of this analysis, it is the author's hope that a better understanding of the factors that motivate and influence cross-national marriages will mitigate the hardship experienced by the many unlucky Vietnamese brides who find themselves in marriage so painful that their only recourse is suicide. Keywords: cross-national marriages, happiness, brides, stereotype, factors, success. Contact : lyquyettien@yahoo.fr
To form a panel : Since the 2000s, Vietnam has welcomed foreign institutions setting up programs at Vietnamese universities. Some 100 foreign institutions have participated, and their presence at Vietnam institutions has diversified the local education environment, and created opportunities for the local learners, lecturers and administrators to contact others, work, and upgrade their competency level. This results in local employers having more choices to recruit qualified candidates. Despite these positive results, issues still exist. Not all the foreign partners are prestigious, and some of their programs are unaccredited. The quality of the graduates from these programs doesn't prove completely these programs' advantages when compared with those of the local top universities. Moreover, their cooperation hasn't made the local universities competitive with the regional institutions in terms of quality and research. Both Vietnam and its foreign partners have to strengthen the system, enhance their prestige, and contribute to the socio-economic development in Vietnam. Keywords: local, transnational, education, issues, quality, cooperation, results. Contact: Ly QUYET TIEN - lyquyettien@yahoo.fr
In the absence of a vibrant art market in Myanmar, especially during the socialist period from 1962 to 1988, illustration was the principal site of avant-garde pictorial experimentations. It was in fact the site of genesis of modern Burmese art. The illustrations by Bagyi Aung Soe (1923–1990), leader of modern Burmese art and Myanmar's most prolific illustrator in the 20th-century, were disseminated to all strata of the society throughout the country via the medium of monthly periodicals in which they were featured. Approximately 6,000 of these illustrations have been identified and documented on aungsoeillustrations.org, an open-access online database funded and hosted by the Nanyang Technological University. It aims to conserve this intellectual, cultural and artistic heritage of Myanmar, to activate its memory and to ultimately usher in the rethinking and rewriting of the history of modern art in Southeast Asia through a revision of the significance of illustration – an often sidelined medium deemed “commercial” as opposed to fine art – in this part of the world. An Open-Access Online Database of a Modern Burmese Artist's Illustrations: Research & Public Education will address the database's potential for research and public education on the topic of modern art in Myanmar and Southeast Asia. Disciplinary field: Art history Keywords: Myanmar, Southeast Asia, Art history, Illustration, Digital Humanities, Public Education, Heritage Contact : yin.ker@ntu.edu.sg / 0yin0ker0@gmail.com
People with disabilities tend to be considered not only as “sexless”, but even as “genderless”. Indeed, they are generally perceived as gender-neutral “disabled beings”. However, especially in a highly gendered society such as Japan, it is doubtful that men and women living with a disabilities are not affected by gender norms or do not experience gender-based differences in their daily lives. This paper introduces the first results of a postdoctoral research aimed at exploring the gendered aspects of the experience of “disability” in Japanese society. First, it presents statistics revealing differences between disabled men and women, especially a significant gap in employment rates and incomes that can be interpreted as a case of “multiple discrimination” (fukugô sabetsu) experienced by disabled women. Then it analyses the first results of a qualitative survey conducted in July-August 2016 focusing on the case of women, so as to sketch the process through which disabled women construct their identities, in compliance with / in opposition to mainstream norms regarding abilities and femininity. It shows that disabled women have an ambiguous attitude towards gender stereotypes, mixing longing and uneasiness, resulting in a double bind in which many of them can neither abide by nor subvert mainstream gender norms. Contact: Anne-Lise Mithout - annelise.mithout@gmail.com
The kangany system in colonial South and South East Asia oversaw Indian migrant labor in India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia from the nineteenth century onwards. Kanganies played a vital role in the push and pull factors which contributed to Tamil migration to British Malaya via Tamil Nadu, India and Sri Lanka. At first glance, European intervention and the British colonial framework seem responsible for Tamil migration to Southeast Asia during the late nineteenth century onwards. However, kanganies were the vital lifeline between the colonizer and the colonized. Kanganies, as the middle men, fostered their own agency to bring Tamil labourers to Malaya by navigating the colonial system to impact colonial categorizations put onto Indian and Sri Lankan migrants to Malaysia. Government Orders and Files of the Colonial Office from the India Office London are rich primary source materials to review the kangany system. Through a comparison of this system, scholars can revisit notions of migration, diaspora, and the imagined community of the South Asian population in Malaysia. How did kanganies utilize their own agency to rise in social status (shudra caste and adi dravida caste networks) among their peers? How did sub-ethnicity (Indian Tamil, Sri Lankan Tamil, Malayalee) function as a new caste identity formation? Through a review of this system, this paper will explore how South Asian communities navigated the colonial system to change the course of their lives, leading to the development of new diasporic experience within the Indian Ocean realm. Thus, we can come to understand the dynamic dualism between the colonial system and agency. This fostered the imagined community during the kangany era of the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Contact : k.hodelinterwal@let.ru.nl
This proposal intends to examine the role of religious communities in medieval India in shaping their natural habitat and organizing their actions concerning nature. In the wake of expanded knowledge of medieval ecosystems and the human role in them, I propose to move ahead of any one uniform textual tradition to see medieval religion as a dominant ideology for controlling natural resources via the agency of religious rituals. Medieval religious experiences and even beliefs varied from place to place and community to community. In the historical context of medieval Indian history the paper will scrutinize humans' interaction with nature which filtered through agency of religious rituals. How attitudes towards nature have differed among peoples, places and times? How the ritual meanings, people give to nature, inform their cultural, economic and political notions are some questions yet to be answered. The sources of study would be largely drawn from the medieval textual customs and local hagiographical traditions. While assessing the role of medieval religious communities towards nature one should be cautious that these communities were not guided by a conscious sense of conservation to maintain ecological balance as environmental deterioration was not on their agenda. Compassion towards nature was ingrained into the religious virtues because in the public demonstration of being pious, charitable and religious it was essential that one should be compassionate towards nature and habitat as well. The popular and elite notions regarding nature and habitat in spite of sharing common rituals, requires to be treated with different premises due to varied notions of utility and command over the natural resources. Contact : shalin1974@gmail.com
When Korea was colonized by Japan in 1910, the Japanese colonial government in Korea was keenly aware of the potential danger of Korean print media as powerful conduits for producing and disseminating anti-Japanese sentiments, so it developed modes of systematic and institutionalized censorship to control public opinion of Korean people. Under the watchful eyes of government censorship, sensitive discussions about Korean nationalism, independence, or struggle against Japan were not permitted. My presentation examines the ways in which Dong-A Ilbo (Dong-A Daily), a leading Korean newspaper, delivered to its readers anti-Japanese political messages while trying not to infuriate Japanese authorities and, accordingly, could gain a reputation as a firm advocate of Korean nationalism and independence movements under the harshly adverse climate. I argue that Dong-A Ilbo actively consumed Sun Yat-sen's image as a symbol of Chinese revolution and anti-colonial nationalism as an indirect, but effective, way of promoting Korean nationalism without greatly enraging Japanese authorities, who also had a positive view of Sun Yat-sen as a pro-Japanese politician who asserted the necessity of China's coalition with Japan to fend off Western imperialism in the East Asian region. Contact: Hyun-ho Joo - hhjoo@yonsei.ac.kr
Being born and raised in Delhi, India where my own family's story begins with my parents and grandparents themselves, being “displaced persons” or ‘refugees” as Hindus from the part of Punjab which ended up in Pakistan, were nursing the wounds of the partition of the Indian sub continent in 1947. Presenting a brief background to the partition history, we will link the past through the memories constructed since the 1950's through narratives: films, literature, etc. Since the end of the last century, there has been a growing academic and personal interest in recording the stories of people displaced beyond the official narratives. The memory of the Partition has been embodied in places in Delhi as many refuges got relocated in planned colonies like East Patel Nagar where I grew up. Today, these colonies are experiencing a dramatic change, the modern villas replacing the urban dwellings built in the 1950's. These changes question the memory when the place is deconstructed, shifting from a residential refugee colony to a commercial functional space. We will conclude our presentation by sharing some of the unpublished family narratives on the theme we have been collecting over the years signifying various perspectives regarding the partition and its memories. Contact : benoit.raoulx@unicaen.fr / baggaraoulx@gmail.com
To form panel proposition Keywords: Postcolonial culture in Asia, Cold War, Cultural diplomacy, Post-Cold War During the Cold War, American cultural diplomacy effectively colonized the Japanese art world. In 1992, when Masato Nakamura (b. 1963) came back from three-year stint in Korea, he realized how a Westernized art education effaces distinctive local culture, its politics and history, and began decolonizing his Americanized values, first by contextualizing the issues by interviewing people in the arts and publishing them. He then explored new forms of expression, exhibition, and economic system, grounded in the homegrown principles. His was an invaluable response to cultural and economic globalization observed through the periphery. My paper will examine how Nakamura grappled with the global dominance of Western culture established during the Cold War. Based on his anthology of interviews, I will analyze how, during Japan's urban-centered high economic growth period, art became depoliticized and commodified. Nakamura first responded to these issues by assembling artists and de-aestheticized Westernized art with GINBURART. His ZERODATE energized a depopulated town in Akita with a group of artists and volunteers using contemporary art. Finally, 3331 Arts Chiyoda is an artists-led, self-sustaining alternative space outside the Euro-American neoliberal art market system. I will discuss and illuminate Nakamura's innovative responses to such a system. Contact: myamamura@gradcenter.cuny.edu
To form panel proposition Keywords : ART-ANDHRA-BUDDHIST-SOCIAL CHANGER ART, process of externalisation of internal manifestations, brewed/ brood through ages and stages, is true ventilation of human aspirations. Beginning clay figurine–Pre-historic Venus, Upper-Mesolithic European Magdalena Cave paintings; Chalcolith-Indus Valley Bronze Dancing Girl, Yogic Pasupati Siva etc., mirror artistry, lithography and metallurgy of times. BUDDHISM, prime moral order preached by Bhagawan Buddha, aimed at redemption of humankind from carnal, divided into branches, losing ground and becoming theistic. ANDHRA ART, since Satavahanas, represented in Buddhist Stupas/Viharas in Krishna valley at Amaravati etc. exemplifies Mahayana Buddhist Art, Religion and Philosophy. Execution of Jataka Stories describes happenings in previous births of Buddha. Of the 600 Jataka stories, Nalagiri Jataka (NJ) stands unique in execution, narration and in communicating moral and ethical values for social change. NJ narrates opponents of Lord, set out Ferocious Elephant Nalagiri to end HIM. Unknowing, Lord, in mendicant's attire is on streets, for alms. Nalagiri moves fast towards Lord. Residents on either side, peeping thorough balconies and windows are found fear and wonder struck. Nalagiri as approaching HIM, finding serenity and tranquillity in HIM, bows down. Account explains control of emotions leads to achieve desired goals and even cow down anger and wrath of others. Article will be digitised. Deadline : October, 14 2016 Contact: avadhanulavkbabu@yahoo.co.in / avishadevi4@gmail.com
To form panel proposition Key words : Communism. Genocide-politicide. Crimes against humanity. Joint criminal enterprise. Hard labour camps Collectives. People's communes. Ruralisation. Prisons. Cold War. Totalitarianism. What is usually called the Khmer Rouge tribunal has been the butt of criticism for practical, judicial and political reasons. It has arrived too late, was established too far from the centre of the capital and has dragged on too long. Some have raised objections to the too short time lag chosen (17 April 1975 to 7 January 1979) and its limited geographical space, by excluding the outside interferences of counties like Vietnam, China or even the US. Above all, lawyers have claimed the Tribunal has not abided by international standards of justice. It has been accused of turning a blind eye to political interferences from the Phnom Penh government that made sure some of the main actors of the regime would not be allowed to testify. It has spent a lot of its energy investigating the so-called “genocide” of Vietnamese, while overlooking the fate of hundreds of thousands of Khmers who were the victims of the vast prison network throughout the country, barely mentioning widespread famine, back-breaking hard labour and the abolishment of childhood. The Trial, however has had beneficial consequences for the country: Duch has actively participated in his first trial, and in the course the second, has testified twice again and made staggering revelations about the choice of the enemy and the way the regime was run. An intergenerational dialogue has been established and the Khmers are now much more aware of the nature of the regime and how it was such a totalitarian system was inflicted on them. Contact : henri2locard@gmail.com
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